In pursuit of a “glossy” model of appearance, an increasing number of people are trying to change something in themselves: to get rid of excess weight, gain muscle mass, acquire more attractive body proportions, etc. At the same time, many do not realize that the features of the human constitution are genetically inherent. therefore, before correcting it, you need to know what human somatotypes are, and which of them you belong to.
The choice of typology is a matter of taste
The body of any person is unique. However, there are many techniques that allow you to identify the main body types, which are not only similar in appearance, but also respond to various environmental factors with similar changes in the constitution.
The most famous classifications are:
Typology of body proportions
In accordance with it, all people can be divided into the following types.
- Dolichomorphic, which includes people of tall stature with long limbs, poorly developed muscles and an insignificant fat layer.
- Brachymorphic, under the definition of which there are representatives of the stronger and weaker sex, whose longitudinal dimensions are inferior to the transverse ones. They are characterized by short stature and well-developed muscles. Even the internal organs of such a person can be wider in width than in length.
- Mesomorphic – the type with the most “ideal” proportions, close to the average.
This division is important not only from an aesthetic point of view. According to experts, the more deviations in the proportions of the body of men or women are traced, the higher the likelihood of chromosomal malfunctions and disturbances in the functioning of the endocrine system.
According to the methodology developed by Professor W. Sheldon, a person’s somatotype is determined by a set of assessments of individual components of his physique. Based on this, he identified three main constitutional types.
- The mesomorph is distinguished by broad shoulders, a developed chest and strong muscles. The content of subcutaneous fat is low, muscles and bones predominate in the mass.
- Ectomorph characterizes tall, thin people with a small percentage of adipose tissue and poorly developed muscles. They are distinguished by elongated parts of the body, which is especially evident in the structure of the limbs, chest and face. The likelihood of overweight in this type is minimal.
- The endomorph can “boast” of a heavy figure with a high content of subcutaneous fat, a significant part of which is concentrated in the shoulder girdle and the abdomen and pelvis. The limbs of such a person are weak, with flabby muscles. Endomorphs are genetically prone to obesity, so they have the hardest part in the struggle for ideal forms.
Sheldon’s technique has become widespread among people involved in sports. Based on the somatotype of a person, an individual training complex is selected for him in combination with a special diet.
E. Kretschmer’s typology
This German doctor in the course of his research revealed a clear influence of different body constitutions on the psychological characteristics of a person. Based on the systematization he proposed, the following body types are distinguished.
- Asthenic is a thin person with elongated body proportions and taller than average height. His face is usually elongated and his bones are thin. He, as a rule, is constantly immersed in thought processes and is distinguished by a rich imagination and excellent self-organization. Representatives of this type are inclined to choose creative professions.
- Athletes are people with narrow hips, broad shoulders, well-developed muscles and medium height. They are characterized by a love of order, a tendency to self-discipline and good organizational skills.
- Picnics are a category of people who are usually overweight. Common features include short stature, a “blurry” figure, a thick neck and a wide face. But on the other hand, for the most part, they are good-natured and merry fellows who adore communication.
This is the most common division of constitutional types, which is often the focus of modern medicine.
- Asthenics. Representatives of this physique are distinguished by thin bones, high growth and long limbs. They have a narrow chest, the size of which clearly prevails over the volume of the abdomen. Such people are characterized by an insufficient content of subcutaneous fat in combination with poorly developed muscles. It is quite difficult to build up it because of the accelerated metabolism. But thanks to this, the deposition of excess body fat is unlikely.
- A normostenic is a person with good body proportions, a strong skeleton, broad shoulders and well-developed muscles. The ratio of muscle to adipose tissue is within the average range. If desired, such people can quickly and effectively change their weight and build muscle.
- Hypersthenic – has a “dense” build, short stature, oval chest and short neck. They are characterized by a high percentage of subcutaneous fat and high blood cholesterol. Representatives of this type are prone to rapid and uncontrolled weight gain, which is difficult to correct.
How to find out your type of constitution
Before embarking on activities to change your body, you need to find out which somatotype you belong to. So how do you determine your body type? There are several simple techniques for this.
In this case, it is necessary to subtract the sum of the chest circumference and body weight from the height and evaluate the result obtained. If it is more than 25, feel free to classify yourself as asthenic. An indicator of less than 10 indicates a hypersthenic physique. Well, if the value is in the range of 10-25, then the person is a normosthenic.
This method is mainly suitable for girls and is based on an assessment of the height and length of the legs of the fair sex.
Women with a height of 168 to 173 cm and above are asthenics. But for normosthenics and hypersthenics, growth does not exceed 165-170 cm.
Additionally, it is recommended to measure the length of the legs from the protrusion of the femur to the heel and compare it with a value equal to half the height. If the leg length is more than this indicator by more than 6 cm, you belong to the asthenic type. If it is exceeded by 4-6 cm – to normosthenic, up to 4 cm – to hypersthenic.
Measuring the wrist
Perhaps the easiest way to determine your type of constitution is by the wrist, the circumference of which must be measured on the working hand. The result will tell you which physique is typical for you:
- for hypersthenics or endomorphs, the obtained value is more than 17 cm in the weaker sex and 20 cm in the strong half;
- in asthenics (ectomorphs), the indicator should not exceed 15 and 18 cm for women and men, respectively;
- the normostenic or mesomorph has intermediate results in the circumference of the wrist.
When determining your somatotype, it should be remembered that pronounced representatives of a particular constitution are quite rare. As a rule, most people have mixed body types with a predominance of one.