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The main classification and types of gymnastics

Gymnastics is not a specific sport, but rather a collective concept. There are many of its types, and each of them is worth telling in more detail.


The main classification of types of gymnastics involves the allocation of three large groups: health-improving gymnastics, sports, and also applied. Each individual species should be described in more detail.


The main types of health-improving gymnastics:

  • Main (general). The main goal of such gymnastics is the development of human motor activity. Such development may involve mastering some new skills, increasing activity in order to master more complex actions. It is this type that is used in most educational institutions as one of the disciplines included in the program. The main exercises performed are walking, running, jumping, overcoming obstacles, carrying loads, crawling, and so on. Often, additional devices and equipment are used, for example, jump ropes, rings, crossbars, parallel bars, small dumbbells, and so on. Basic gymnastics will tighten the body, increase coordination and normalize the body’s work.
  • Hygienic. This type is aimed at improving the mood and well-being of a person, maintaining health, preventing diseases and increasing the general tone. That is, training the body and increasing activity are not the main goals. As a rule, the simplest exercises are performed without the use of additional devices. Similar classes are held in sanatoriums or health resorts.
  • Athletic. Such gymnastics is often called strength gymnastics, since it is aimed at increasing muscle mass and giving the muscles relief, increasing the body’s endurance and strengthening strength. All exercises are performed using dumbbells, weights, sports equipment. Usually, it is assumed that some actions are repeated many times, since it is precisely such training that allows you to work out the muscles. This type is recommended to a greater extent for young people to improve and maintain their shape. Classes require the supervision of a doctor, since the load is intense.
  • Rhythmic. Such gymnastics is somewhat similar to hygienic and general, but differs from them in that all exercises are rhythmic and performed to music (it is she who sets the main beat), and also includes elements of choreography. This type of gymnastics includes such modern trends as shaping, aerobics, dance gymnastics.


The main types of artistic gymnastics:

  • Rhythmic gymnastics is considered a female form, as it involves a certain amount of entertainment and aesthetics. Exercises are most often performed with music and include elements such as splits, various jumps, flips, and so on. Some of the movements are borrowed from choreography. When performing, additional devices can be used: balls, hoops, ribbons, jump ropes, scarves and so on.
  • Sports acrobatics includes very complex elements, all exercises require long training, high coordination of movements and maximum endurance. Basic elements: various stances, jumps with turns in the air, rolls, somersaults, somersaults, “bridges”, splits and so on. Exercises can be performed by two or three.
  • Athletics. It unites and includes such disciplines as running, walking, running, jumping, throwing, cross-country cross-country, all-around and so on. The exercises are quite difficult, but not strength.
  • Weightlifting involves doing exercises with weights and using heavy equipment such as barbells, kettlebells, dumbbells. This type includes such elements as lifting the bar from various positions and in different ways, holding and throwing weights, and so on. Although this type is considered predominantly male, women are also involved in weightlifting.


Applied gymnastics includes the following types:

  • Physiotherapy. It is aimed at eliminating diseases or alleviating the condition of patients. Therapeutic exercises can be prescribed for diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, the musculoskeletal system. Classes should be prescribed by the attending physician and carried out strictly under his supervision, only in this case they will be effective.
  • Applied military gymnastics should contribute to the formation, consolidation and improvement of skills inherent in military operations. This type is used in the army.
  • Sports and applied. This type is aimed, first of all, at preparing professional athletes for competitions, achieving the best results and improving their skills.
  • Professionally applied gymnastics is used to master new or improve existing skills of people whose professional activity is associated with certain physical loads and involves the performance of complex actions. This type allows you to increase labor productivity and avoid industrial injuries. Applied professional gymnastics has several varieties designed for different professions, for example, for astronauts, pilots, firefighters, sailors.

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